If you organize programming languages into tiers they would fall into three tiers.
The top tier would include the mainstream languages such as Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, C#, C++, and Objective-C.
While some top tier languages may fade, you’d better know one or more of these languages if you want to easily find a job.

From medium.com

Second-tier languages are waiting to break into the mainstream. They are proving their worth by building strong communities of support.
But they still aren’t using a large number of more conservative software companies. Scala, Go, Swift, Clojure, and Haskell are languages that can be in the second tier. Some companies use these languages in a few services, but wide industry use is rare. Go and Swift both are having a good chance of moving to the first tier in the next few years.

Most of the languages in the top tier are firmly entrenched. It takes a while for a programming language to fall out of the top tier. And it’s very hard for a second-tier language to break into the top tier.

The emerging languages of this article are in the third tier, and they are just starting to gain a following. Some languages are in the third tier for many years while others have burst onto the scene in just one or two years. Here are five languages that fall into the latter category within the third tier.

  1. Elm
  2. Rust
  3. Kotlin
  4. Crystal
  5. Elixir

Emerging Programming languages: Why these five?

The five programming languages that are focused on are fairly new and have a strong chance of breaking into the second-tier languages in the next few years. Maybe someday one of these languages will even be able to crack the top tier.

Here’s why these five Programming languages were chosen for this list.


is becoming popular within the JavaScript community, primarily among those who prefer functional programming, which is on the rise. Like Babel, TypeScript, and Dart, Elm transpiles to JavaScript.

From softwareengineeringdaily.com


is a systems programming language meant to replace a lot of C and C++ development—which is why it’s surprising to see this language’s popularity growing the fastest among web developers. It makes a little more sense when you find out that the language was created at Mozilla, who is looking to give web developers that are forced to write low-level code a better option that’s more performant than PHP, Ruby, Python, or JavaScript. Rust was also crowned the “most loved” technology in StackOverflow’s 2016 developer survey (meaning it had the most users who wanted to keep using it).

From zuaneducation.com


For about five years, kotlin reached the production-ready version 1.0 this year. Although they are on the way of achieving the popularity of Scala, Groovy, or Clojure. These are the three most popular and mature (non-Java) JVM languages. They are separating itself from the myriad other JVM languages to take its place among the leaders of this group. It originated at JetBrains—makers of the popular IntelliJ IDEA IDE.
So you know it is crafted with developer productivity in mind. Another major reason Kotlin has a bright future—you can easily build Android apps with it.

From kotlinang.org


It is another language that hopes to bring C-like performance into the highly abstracted world of web developers. Crystal is aimed at the Ruby community, with a syntax that is similar to Ruby’s. As the already large number of Ruby-based startups continues to grow, Crystal could play a key role in helping take those applications’ performance to the next level.

From Wikipedia


It also takes a lot of inspiration from the Ruby ecosystem, but instead of trying to bring C-like benefits, it’s focuses on creating high-availability,low-latency systems.
Elixir achieves this performance boosts by running on the Erlang VM.
It is having a strong performance reputation built over its 25 years in the telecom industry. The Phoenix application framework for Elixir—more than any piece of this blooming ecosystem—has given this language legs.

From Udemy.com

Now, take a quick peek at four of these five languages making their way up the popularity ladder, according to StackOverflow and GitHub data:

Source: Github (redmonk)

Each of these languages is already having an enthusiastic community and its own weekly newsletter.
So if you’re thinking of learning a language you can go ahead with these.